In vitro effects of oxytocin, acepromazine, detomidine, xylazine, butorphanol, terbutaline, isoproterenol, and dantrolene on smooth and skeletal muscles of the equine esophagus. Academic Article uri icon


  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize the in vitro effects of oxytocin, acepromazine, xylazine, butorphanol, detomidine, dantrolene, isoproterenol, and terbutaline on skeletal and smooth muscle from the equine esophagus. ANIMALS: 14 adult horses without digestive tract disease. PROCEDURE: Circular and longitudinal strips from the skeletal and smooth muscle of the esophagus were suspended in tissue baths, connected to force-displacement transducers interfaced with a physiograph, and electrical field stimulation was applied. Cumulative concentration-response curves were generated for oxytocin, acepromazine, xylazine, detomidine, butorphanol, isoproterenol, terbutaline, and dantrolene. Mean maximum twitch amplitude for 3 contractions/min was recorded and compared with predrug-vehicle values for the skeletal muscle segments, and area under the curve (AUC) for 3 contractions/min was compared with predrug-vehicle values for the smooth muscle segments. RESULTS: No drugs caused a significant change in skeletal muscle response. In smooth muscle, isoproterenol, terbutaline, and oxytocin significantly reduced AUC in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum reduction in AUC was 69% at 10(-4) M for isoproterenol, 63% at 10(-6) M for terbutaline, and 64% at 10(-4) M for oxytocin. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Isoproterenol, terbutaline, and oxytocin cause relaxation of the smooth muscle portion of the esophagus. The clinical relaxant effects on the proximal portion of the esophagus reported of drugs such as oxytocin, detomidine, and acepromazine may be the result of centrally mediated mechanisms.

published proceedings

  • Am J Vet Res

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Wooldridge, A. A., Eades, S. C., Hosgood, G. L., & Moore, R. M.

citation count

  • 13

complete list of authors

  • Wooldridge, Anne A||Eades, Susan C||Hosgood, Giselle L||Moore, Rustin M

publication date

  • December 2002