Oxidative Stress and Interaction of Endothelin Receptors in Airways ofClinically Healthy Horses
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Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a physiological as well as an inflammatory mediator, causes contraction of airway smooth muscles by binding to endothelin-A (ETA) and endothelin-B (ETB) receptors. We investigated the interaction between endothelin receptors on contractions and oxidative stress of bronchial rings of clinically healthy horses. Rings for response studies were set in tissue chambers containing oxygenated Tyrode's solution. Concentration-response relationships were determined for ET-1 on control rings, rings incubated with ETA antagonist (BQ123), rings incubated with ETB antagonists (IRL 1038 and BQ788), and rings incubated with all antagonists combined. For oxidative stress studies, rings were incubated for 30 minutes separately with ET-1, ETA antagonist + ET-1, ETB antagonists + ET-1, and all three antagonists + ET-1. The control rings were not treated with any agents. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method was used to measure total reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide, and peroxynitrite. Results showed that ET-1 caused dose-dependent contractions which were increased by ETA blockade and decreased by ETB blockade. Combined blockade significantly inhibited the response to ET-1. Regarding the oxidative stress, ET-1 and its antagonists significantly reduced the total ROS. Superoxide production was significantly decreased by ETA antagonist and completely abolished when ETA and ETB antagonists were combined. Peroxynitrite production was not changed significantly. The study suggested that an interaction between ET receptors exists in the expression of contractile responses and oxidative stress. ET-1 attenuated oxidative stress by decreasing total ROS. ETA receptors may be primarily responsible for superoxide production. It appears that ET-1 does not affect peroxynitrite production in normal equine tissues. 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science
author list (cited authors)
Venugopal, C., Mariappan, N., Holmes, E., Koch, C., Francis, J., & Eades, S.
complete list of authors
Venugopal, Changaram||Mariappan, Nithya||Holmes, Earnestine||Koch, Catherine||Francis, Joseph||Eades, Susan