An 8-to-16Gb/s 0.65-to-1.05pJ/b 2-Tap Impedance-Modulated Voltage-Mode Transmitter with Fast Power-State Transitioning in 65nm CMOS
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Future processor I/Os must aggressively improve per-channel data-rates and energy efficiency to meet projected system bandwidth demands. These constraints necessitate the design of ultra-low-power serial-link transmitters that can efficiently incorporate equalization to compensate for channel losses, while enabling fast power-state transitioning to leverage dynamic power scaling. In this work, a scalable-data-rate voltage-mode transmitter is presented that introduces two main innovations. First, an impedance-modulated 2-tap equalizer is adopted that employs analog control of the equalizer taps, thereby obviating output driver segmentation. Second, fast power-state transitioning is achieved using a replica-biased voltage regulator to power the output stages of multiple channels and per-channel injection-locked oscillators (ILO) that can be rapidly disabled. Furthermore, capacitively driven low-swing global clock distribution and automatic phase calibration of the local ILO-generated quarter-rate clocks enables improved energy efficiency with aggressive supply scaling. © 2014 IEEE.
author list (cited authors)
Song, Y., Yang, H., Li, H., Chiang, P. Y., & Palermo, S.