Versatile Integrated PMD Emulation and Compensation Elements
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Highly versatile building blocks for polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) emulation and compensation are demonstrated using tunable all-pass filters fabricated in 4%-index-contrast planar waveguides. While the all-pass filters can approximate any phase response, the complexity in setting the individual filter parameters is minimized by restricting the all-pass filter response to realize a range of differential delays, dispersion, and dispersion slope. A single section can approximate first-order or a higher-order PMD term or emulate chromatic or higher-order dispersion. A differential group delay (DGD) tuning range over 100 ps is demonstrated for 10 Gb/s and 25 ps for 40 Gb/s data. Second-order PMD with a tuning range of 255 ps2 and third-order PMD with a range of 2430 ps3 are also demonstrated. The larger index contrast required for the ring-resonator-based all-pass filters is advantageous in reducing the thermooptic response time to achieve polarization rotation speeds on the order of 0.1 s/degree. The device is interferometrically stable and compact in size. It can be fully integrated, scaled to many sections, and can implement a variety of PMD synthesis and statistical-emulation approaches.
Journal of Lightwave Technology
author list (cited authors)
Madsen, C. K., Cappuzzo, M., Laskowski, E. J., Chen, E., Gomez, L., Griffin, A., ... Buhl, L.
complete list of authors
Madsen, CK||Cappuzzo, M||Laskowski, EJ||Chen, E||Gomez, L||Griffin, A||Wong-Foy, A||Chandrasekhar, S||Stulz, L||Buhl, L