Near-field scanning optical microscopy imaging of multimode interference.
Additional Document Info
By use of a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) in collection mode, the intensity distribution along a 2 x 2 multimode interference coupler was directly imaged as a function of wavelength. Although calculations can predict the general trend of wavelength dependence and the approximate positions of multiple images in the coupler, the accuracy is poor because of uncertainties in the waveguide width. We show that direct imaging using a NSOM bypasses calculational uncertainties and proves to be a powerful technique for studying these waveguide devices.