Investigating the carbon footprint and stormwater reduction in the Central North Texas: Examining LID design and construction influences
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In response to growing concerns over global climate change, and surface water quality degradation due to urban development, a variety of Low Impact Development (LID) Stormwater Control Measures ( SCMs) have been employed to address stormwater runoff Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution. NPS stormwater runoff is the leading cause of water quality degradation in the United States (USEPA, 2006). As runoff flows over parking lots, yards, streets and farms, it picks up all pollutants and sediments and drains them directly into water body, where they harmfully affect water quality. According to the rapid development of urban areas that increases the imperviousness of the land; more pollutants and sediments will be transferred and deposited in water body. To improve the understanding of LIDs in reducing total water runoff and carbon emissions, and improving outflow water quality, three SCMs that include: bioretention, permeable pavement, and rainwater harvesting were designed, constructed and are being evaluated. In the case of rainwater harvesting, and permeable pavement, a controlled experimental setup was constructed to collect performance data. In respect to the effectiveness of SCMs in reducing carbon emissions; Life Cycle Assessment modeling software (GaBi) was utilized and is being calibrated to determine carbon sources in urban landscape with particular focus on the construction of SCMs. The desired results of this study are the followings: 1) Development of procedures that can be used to verify the effectiveness of the studied LIDs as stormwater control measures. 2)Development of a carbon footprint for each LID utilized in this research.