Stochastic Misconceptions of Pre-Service Teachers Academic Article uri icon


  • Analyzing explanations from 108 participants on a probability and statistics assessment, this study examined the use of two stochastic misconceptions by pre-service K-8 teachers. Representativeness heuristics were used more often when the problem was set in a social context rather than a traditional mathematical setting. Although some participants used representativeness to guide them to a correct answer, most participants were led astray by this heuristic. The majority of the participants did not realize that a conjunction is less probable than either of its constituent parts.

published proceedings

  • Academic Exchange Quarterly

author list (cited authors)

  • Carter, T. A., & Capraro, R. M.

complete list of authors

  • Carter, TA||Capraro, RM

publication date

  • January 2015