Recent trends in cancer drug resistance reversal strategies using nanoparticles
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INTRODUCTION: Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle in the successful amelioration of tumors in many cancer patients. Resistance is either intrinsic or acquired, involving mechanisms such as genetic aberrations, decreased influx and increased efflux of drugs. Strategies for the reversal of resistance involve the alteration of enzymes responsible for drug resistance, the modulation of proteins regulating apoptosis mechanisms and improving the uptake of drugs using nanotechnology. Novel strides in the reversal of drug resistance are emerging, involving the use of nanotechnology, targeting stem cells, etc. AREAS COVERED: This paper reviews the most recent cancer drug reversal strategies involving nanotechnology for targeting cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs), for enhanced uptake of micro- and macromolecular inhibitors. EXPERT OPINION: Nanotechnology used in conjunction with existing therapies, such as gene therapy and P-glycoprotein inhibition, has been shown to improve the reversal of drug resistance; the mechanisms involved in this include specific targeting of drugs and nucleotide therapeutics, enhanced cellular uptake of drugs and improved bioavailability of drugs with poor physicochemical characteristics. Important strategies in the reversal of drug resistance include: a multifunctional nanoparticulate system housing a targeting moiety; therapeutics to kill resistant cancer cells and CSCs; cytotoxic drugs and a tumor microenvironment stimuli-responsive element, to release the encapsulated therapeutics.
author list (cited authors)
Palakurthi, S., Yellepeddi, V. K., & Vangara, K. K.