Tulsi oil as a potential penetration enhancer for celecoxib transdermal gel formulations
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The focus of the present study was to develop and evaluate the transdermal system of celecoxib. Transdermal gels composed of carbopol 940 in propylene glycol (PG) containing penetration enhancers. The formulations were characterized by permeation, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and histopathology. Celecoxib permeation across excised rat skins were statistically (p < 0.05) enhanced by tulsi oil compared to turpentine oil containing formulations. In comparison to orally administered formulations, the pharmacokinetic parameters of gel and control formulations were significantly higher (p < 0.05). The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) obtained with formulations containing 4% turpentine and 6% tulsi oil was, respectively, 1.52 and 2.41 times higher than the formulations without penetration enhancer. Similarly, area under the curve (AUC) of these formulations was 1.70 and 2.40 times higher than the formulations without penetration enhancers. Anti-inflammatory studies demonstrated a statistically significant (p < 0.05) pharmacodynamics profile for the transdermal gel formulations compared to orally administered and control celecoxib formulations. Histopathological studies revealed some disruption in the epidermis without any toxic effect on the dermis layer of skin by penetration enhancers. In summary, the transdermal gel formulations of celecoxib containing penetration enhancers sustained drug level in the blood and will reduce the dose frequency as required with its conventional oral formulation.
author list (cited authors)
Shamsher, A. A., Charoo, N. A., Rahman, Z., Pillai, K. K., & Kohli, K.