Novel therapeutic approaches for disease-modification of epileptogenesis for curing epilepsy.
Additional Document Info
This article describes the recent advances in epileptogenesis and novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention of epilepsy, with a special emphasis on the pharmacological basis of disease-modification of epileptogenesis for curing epilepsy. Here we assess animal studies and human clinical trials of epilepsy spanning 1982-2016. Epilepsy arises from a number of neuronal factors that trigger epileptogenesis, which is the process by which a brain shifts from a normal physiologic state to an epileptic condition. The events precipitating these changes can be of diverse origin, including traumatic brain injury, cerebrovascular damage, infections, chemical neurotoxicity, and emergency seizure conditions such as status epilepticus. Expectedly, the molecular and system mechanisms responsible for epileptogenesis are not well defined or understood. To date, there is no approved therapy for the prevention of epilepsy. Epigenetic dysregulation, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration appear to trigger epileptogenesis. Targeted drugs are being identified that can truly prevent the development of epilepsy in at-risk people. The promising agents include rapamycin, COX-2 inhibitors, TRK inhibitors, epigenetic modulators, JAK-STAT inhibitors, and neurosteroids. Recent evidence suggests that neurosteroids may play a role in modulating epileptogenesis. A number of promising drugs are under investigation for the prevention or modification of epileptogenesis to halt the development of epilepsy. Some drugs in development appear rational for preventing epilepsy because they target the initial trigger or related signaling pathways as the brain becomes progressively more prone to seizures. Additional research into the target validity and clinical investigation is essential to make new frontiers in curing epilepsy.