Wide Area ProtectionTechnology and Infrastructures
Additional Document Info
Wide area measurements have been widely used in the energy management systems (EMS) of power systems for monitoring, operation, and control. In recent years, the advent of synchronized phasor measurements has added another dimension to the field of wide-area measurements. At the same time, the field of protection systems has been dominated by computer based relays, which make it relatively easy to communicate with relays and thus include them in many innovative protection systems. Special Protection Systems (SPS) or Remedial Action Schemes (RAS) are one example of integration of communication and protection systems. In recent years - due to operational demands imposed on transmission networks by deregulation it has become clearer that wide-area measurements and their integration in protection and control systems is a necessity. This paper documents the state-of-the-art in modern sensor, communication, and protection technologies which show great potential for innovations in protection and control systems for the future. 2006 IEEE.