Stochastic DG Placement for Conservation Voltage Reduction Based on Multiple Replications Procedure
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1986-2012 IEEE. Conservation voltage reduction (CVR) and distributed-generation (DG) integration are popular strategies implemented by utilities to improve energy efficiency. This paper investigates the interactions between CVR and DG placement to minimize load consumption in distribution networks, while keeping the lowest voltage level within the predefined range. The optimal placement of DG units is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem considering the uncertainty of DG outputs and load consumptions. A sample average approximation algorithm-based technique is developed to solve the formulated problem effectively. A multiple replications procedure is developed to test the stability of the solution and calculate the confidence interval of the gap between the candidate solution and optimal solution. The proposed method has been applied to the IEEE 37-bus distribution test system with different scenarios. The numerical results indicate that the implementations of CVR and DG, if combined, can achieve significant energy savings.