A Personalized Framework for Dynamic Modeling of Disease Trajectories in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common peripheral blood and bone marrow cancer in the developed world. This manuscript proposes mathematical model equations representing the disease dynamics of B-cell CLL. We interconnect delay differential cell cycle models in each of the tumor-involved disease centers using physiologically relevant cell migration. We further introduce five hypothetical case studies representing CLL heterogeneity commonly seen in clinical practice and demonstrate how the proposed CLL model framework may capture disease pathophysiology across patient types. We conclude by exploring the capacity of the proposed temporally- and spatially distributed model to capture the heterogeneity of CLL disease progression. By using global sensitivity analysis, the critical parameters influencing disease trajectory over space and time are: 1) the initial number of CLL cells in peripheral blood, the number of involved lymph nodes, the presence and degree of splenomegaly; 2) the migratory fraction of nonproliferating as well as proliferating CLL cells from bone marrow into blood and of proliferating CLL cells from blood into lymph nodes; and 3) the parameters inducing nonproliferative cells to proliferate. The proposed model offers a practical platform that may be explored in future personalized patient protocols once validated.