Processes controlling the concentrations of SO=4, NO3, NH+4, H+, HCOOT and CH3COOT in precipitation on Bermuda Academic Article uri icon


  • The composition of precipitation on Bermuda can be characterized as a slightly acidic, dilute seawater solution. The acidity of the solution is controlled by H2SO4, HNO3, HCOOH and CH3COOH in a 67:20:8:3 mixture, respectively. CaCO3 and NH3 have reduced the potential acidity of the solution by 24% and 13%, respectively. The concentrations of nonseasalt (nss) SO=4 and NO3 in precipitation on Bermuda are about a factor of three greater than those in remote marine areas of the world. These differences are attributed in part to anthropogenic activities. NH+4, HCOOT and CH3COOT concentrations in Bermuda precipitation more closely resemble remote areas, although there are distinct events where transport from North America is evident. Precipitation associated with air masses from the central Atlantic Ocean is enriched relative to remote marine areas by about a factor of two in nss SO=4. This appears to be caused by anthropogenic emissions in North America, Europe and Africa. There are higher volumeweighted average concentrations of nss SO=4 and NO3 in storms on Bermuda associated with the NW airflow sector (from North America) compared to the SE airflow sector. These higher concentration are in part due to the influence of North America and in part due to lower amount of precipitation in the NW storms. An analysis of deposition differences between the two sectors confirms that there is at least a factor of two impact of North American anthropogenic activities on nss SO=4 and NO3 in precipitation on Bermuda. 1989 Blackwell Munksgaard

published proceedings

  • Tellus B

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • GALLOWAY, J. N., KEENE, W. C., ARTZ, R. S., MILLER, J. M., CHURCH, T. M., & KNAP, A. H.

citation count

  • 63

complete list of authors


publication date

  • January 1989