DNA sequence determinants of nuclear protein binding to the c-Ha-ras antioxidant/electrophile response element in vascular smooth muscle cells: identification of Nrf2 and heat shock protein 90 as heterocomplex components Academic Article uri icon


  • The antioxidant/electrophile response element (ARE/EpRE) is a cis-acting element involved in redox regulation of c-Ha-ras gene. Protein binding to the ARE/EpRE may be credited to deoxyribonucleic acid sequence; therefore, studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of internal and flanking regions to the 10-bp human c-Ha-ras ARE/EpRE core (hHaras10) on nuclear protein binding in oxidant-treated vascular smooth muscle cells. A protein doublet bound to an extended oligonucleotide comprising the ARE/EpRE core in genomic context (hHaras27), whereas a single complex bound to hHarasl0. Protein binding involved specific interactions of 25- and 23-kDa proteins with hHarasl0, and binding of 80-, 65-, and 55-kDa proteins to hHaras27. Competition assays with hNQO1 and rGSTA2 confirmed the specificity of deoxyribonucleic acid-protein interactions and indicated preferred binding of p25 and p23 to the c-Ha-ras ARE/EpRE. "NNN" sequences within the core afforded unique protein-binding profiles to the c-Ha-ras ARE/EpRE. In addition, Nrf2 and heat shock protein 90beta (p80) were identified as components of the c-Ha-ras ARE/EpRE heterocomplex. We conclude that both internal bases and flanking sequences regulate nuclear protein recruitment and complex assembly on the c-Ha-ras ARE/EpRE.

author list (cited authors)

  • Miller, K. P., & Ramos, K. S.

citation count

  • 8

publication date

  • January 2005