Lipophilic bismuth dimercaptopropanol nanoparticles (BisBAL NPs) have a very important antimicrobial activity; however their effect on human cells or tissues has not been completely studied. Undesirable effects of bismuth include anemia which could result from suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of bismuth dimercaptopropanol nanoparticles on blood cells. The nanoparticles are composed of 53nm crystallites on average and have a spherical structure, agglomerating into clusters of small nanoparticles. Based on cell viability assays and optical microscopy, cytotoxicity on erythrocytes was observed after growing with 500 and 1000
M of BisBAL NPs for 24h. AM Calcein was retained inside erythrocytes when they were exposed to 100 M (or lower concentrations) of BisBAL NPs for 24h, suggesting the absence of damage in plasmatic membrane. Genotoxic assays revealed no damage to genomic DNA of blood cells after 24h of exposition to BisBAL NPs. Finally, 1001000 M of bismuth nanoparticles promotes apoptosis between blood cells after 24h of incubation. Hence BisBAL NPs at concentrations lower than 100 M do not cause damage on blood cells; they could potentially be used by humans without affecting erythrocytes and leukocytes.