Effects of Salinity on Solid Particle Settling Velocity in Non-Newtonian Herschelâ Bulkley Fluids
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Settling velocity or depositional velocity is a very important parameter in drilling technology and hydrocarbon processing as the non-settling condition of particles depends on it. Once the right drilling fluid, which provides lower settling velocity, is identified, the next step is to determine the extent of formation damage (which affects recovery) due to the drilling fluid. Understanding the formation damage caused by a drilling fluid will be beneficial for higher recovery of oil and natural gas. Apart from the drilling fluid and recovery of the hydrocarbons, understanding the settling velocity of Newtonian fluid with high salinity will help for better separation of oil and natural gas streams in processing facilities. Although a great amount of effort was given to rheology measurement and settling velocity measurement for Power-Law fluid and Bingham fluid, there are limited studies available in the literature for Herschel-Bulkley (H-B) fluid with salinity. The proposed experimental project will measure the fluid rheology of non-Newtonian Herschel-Bulkley (H-B) fluid with and without salinity. We will also conduct experiments to measure the settling velocity of spherical and non-spherical particle in different conditions such as salinity, chemistry of salinity (pH and yield strength, viscosity, density), diameter, and sphericity for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. We will also investigate the wall effect on settling velocity. We will develop a correlation of Cd vs. Re. In addition to the rheology and settling velocity experiments, we will also conduct experiments to measure the formation damage and recovery with saline and non-saline H-B fluids. In the proposed project, the effects of salinity on settling velocity of spherical/non-spherical particles will be examined in non-Newtonian Herschelâ Bulkley fluids. A total of eighteen (18) different fluids will be tested with different flowzan concentrations (0.1 wt % to 0.2 wt%) and salt concentrations (6-12%wt of Sodium Chloride and Calcium Chloride). A rheometer (Grace Instrument M3600) will be used to measure the corresponding rheological properties of each fluid.........