Application of phonocardiography for detecting hypoxia-induced cardiovascular adaptation in the chicken.
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Phonocardiography was evaluated as a noninvasive technique for diagnosis of cardiovascular adaptation and disease in broiler chickens. Heart sounds (HSs) were compared in a fast-growing (FG) commercial broiler line that is highly susceptible to chronic right heart failure resulting from pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) and in a non-selected slow-growing (SG) broiler line that is resistant to PHS. HSs were analyzed in broilers reared in hypobaric hypoxia (HYP) and normobaric (CON) conditions. PHS was induced by a combination of embryonic hypoxia and HYP exposure. HSs were recorded with a microphone placed at the thoracic inlet of each chicken. Electrocardiograms were used to mark the sampling interval for the first, second, and total HS. Digitized HS signals were analyzed for peak frequency, mean peak frequency, and band width. Birds were examined for PHS lesions when 6 wk of age, at the end of each experiment. HSs were compared by line and treatment (Experiment 1) or by treatment and week (Experiment 2). In addition, HS frequencies were analyzed within the HYP treatment group for differences between birds with severe or no gross PHS lesions. HS frequencies generally decreased with age and were also lower in the FG than the SG line. Hypobaric exposure decreased all HS frequencies in the SG line and components of the first HSs in the FG line. The SG line did not develop gross lesions of PHS. In the FG line, significant differences in HS frequencies were observed between HYP and CON groups but not between PHS- and PHS+ broilers. Frequency changes described in humans with PHS were not observed. Further development to maximize the resolution of the HS waveforms and improved matching of the sampling interval to the electrical or hemodynamic output of the chicken heart may allow its use as a diagnostic tool for differentiating broilers with normal cardiac function or physiologic adaptation from those with cardiovascular disease.
author list (cited authors)
Jeffrey, J. S., Martinez-Lemus, L. A., Reddy, A. K., Lessard, C. S., & Odom, T. W
complete list of authors
Jeffrey, JS||Martinez-Lemus, LA||Reddy, AK||Lessard, CS||Odom, TW