Highly doped conjugated polymers for electrochemical energy storage Conference Paper uri icon


  • Electrodes composed of conjugated polymers (CPs) offer the potential of high-capacity, high-energy density electrochemical energy storage. CP electrodes are conductive, have high Coulombic efficiency, and are synthetically versatile. These materials store charge through electrochemical reduction and oxidation, otherwise known as de-doping and doping, respectively. Commonly explored CP electrodes, such as polyaniline or polypyrrole, can only achieve doping levels of 0.3-0.5, which result in only modest capacities and energies. Here, several routes to achieve doping levels as high as 0.9 are presented, wherein the result is a CP electrode that bears a capacity 90% of its theoretical value. It should be noted that even higher doping levels are possible with the addition of redox-active side chains. In the first route, aniline is synthesized in the presence of a polyacid to achieve a water-dispersible polyaniline:polyacid colloid. The polyacid acts as the dopant and provides non-covalent interactions that stabilize polyaniline in its most highly doped state, pernigraniline salt. Because of this stability, polyaniline can be reversibly reduced and oxidized up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li+. The implementation of polyaniline:polyacid in a layer-by-layer electrode is also presented. The second route to high doping levels focuses upon electron-rich polymers, such as poly(dithienopyrroles), or poly(DTPs). Side chains are used to modify the poly(DTP)s interaction with electrolyte, the backbones planarity, and the resultant conjugation. In the long term, high-capacity, high-energy CP electrodes potentially enable the formation of flexible energy and power for use in flexible electronics and other applications requiring unconventional shapes and form factors.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Lutkenhaus, J. L., & McFerrin, A.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Lutkenhaus, Jodie L||McFerrin, Artie

publication date

  • April 2014