Major Depressive Disorder and Factorial Dimensions Among Individuals With Recent-Onset Spinal Cord Injury
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OBJECTIVE: We examine the rates of major depressive disorder, single episode determined by the Inventory to Diagnose Depression (IDD) in a clinical sample of persons with recent-onset spinal cord injury (SCI; ≤52 weeks) participating in an inpatient SCI rehabilitation program. We also analyzed the factor structure of the IDD measure in an attempt to replicate the factor structure reported by Frank et al. (1992), and we examined item endorsement patterns. DESIGN: A retrospective chart review was conducted. Participants were 354 individuals (93 women, 261 men) in an inpatient SCI rehabilitation program. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of the sample met criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD). A higher rate of depression was observed among women. A "dysphoria" factor accounted for 24% of the variance in the final four-factor model. The four-factor solution explained a total of 35.5% of the variance, with an "anhedonia" factor contributing 4.6%, a "sleep" factor contributing 3.5%, and an "appetite" factor contributing 3.5%, respectively. Items assessing symptoms of insomnia, weight loss, worrying about health, and decreased energy had the highest percentage of endorsement to meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for clinical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of single episodes of MDD determined by the IDD parallels the rate observed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The factor structure of the IDD was similar to that reported by Frank et al. (1992). Information provided by the IDD about the presence and severity of MDD symptoms can inform interventions for persons with SCI.
author list (cited authors)
Williamson, M., & Elliott, T. R.