On the security of the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) communicator Academic Article uri icon


  • 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. A simple and general proof is given for the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the Kirchhoff-lawJohnson-noise key exchange system under practical conditions. The unconditional security for ideal circumstances, which is based on the second law of thermodynamics, is found to prevail even under slightly non-ideal conditions. This security level is guaranteed by the continuity of functions describing classical physical linear, as well as stable non-linear, systems. Even without privacy amplification, Eves probability for successful bit guessing is found to converge toward 0.5i.e., the perfect security levelwhen ideal conditions are approached.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 6.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Kish, L. B., & Granqvist, C. G.

citation count

  • 40

complete list of authors

  • Kish, Laszlo B||Granqvist, Claes G

publication date

  • January 2014