Double-plume integral models for near-field mixing in multiphase plumes
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We present a generalized integral model for multiphase plumes in stratified ambient conditions based on the double-plume approach, where the plume is composed of a rising, multiphase core plume surrounded by a counterflowing outer ring plume of dense fluid. The generalized model captures as limiting cases the current approaches in the literature, including two-fluid and mixed-fluid equations, continuous and discrete detrainment, dispersed-phase mass transfer, and two models for entrainment in the counterflow region. These modeling approaches are compared and validated against both laboratory and field-scale data. In unstratified conditions, all model formulations perform equally well. In stratification, entrainment in the counterflow region is best represented by correlation to the inner plume velocity instead of the difference between the inner and outer plume velocities. The vertical distribution of the exchange between the inner and outer plumes in the models differs from that measured in the prototype due to enhanced entrainment at the detrainment zone and forced entrainment from the collapsing intrusion layer. Nonetheless, the models predict well the length scales and volume fluxes at the detrainment zone and intrusion layer. Applications are demonstrated for reservoir air bubble plumes. The mass transfer and near-field mixing in the double-plume integral model prove sufficiently accurate to predict the depth of maximum plume rise (both the locations of total dissolution of the bubbles and the maximum height of the decelerating plume) and the volume flux, dissolved constituent mass flux, and trap height of the intrusion. 2008 ASCE.