Multi-phase plumes in uniform, stratified, and flowing environments
Additional Document Info
Multi-phase plumes in uniform, stratified, and flowing environments have been studied through both laboratory and limited field experiments and through numerical modeling. Of particular interest to the authors is the behavior of multi-phase plumes in the deep ocean, with applications ranging from carbon sequestration to the fate of oil released from an oil-well blowout. Here, we review the pertinent literature and present some initial experimental and analytical results of our own. We start with a description of a multi-phase plume in a uniform ambient, then build in complications of stratification and crossflow. Laboratory experiments are presented for a 2.4 m deep stagnant, stratified ambient and a 0.7 m deep uniform crossflow. The experiments supplement observations of plume type from the literature and quantify entrained fluid volume fluxes in stratification to help validate numerical models. Our theoretical analysis includes a re-examination of the governing dimensionless parameters, with specific focus on deep water applications, and presentation of a double plume model, which incorporates the effects of plume peeling and bubble dissolution.