Genetic manipulation of Clostridium difficile. Academic Article uri icon


  • Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore forming, anaerobic, intestinal bacterium and is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. For many years this organism was considered genetically intractable, but in the past 10 years, multiple methods have been developed or adapted for genetic manipulation of C. difficile. This unit describes the molecular techniques used for genetic modification of this organism, including methods for gene disruption, complementation, plasmid introduction and integration, and cross-species conjugations.

published proceedings

  • Curr Protoc Microbiol

author list (cited authors)

  • Bouillaut, L., McBride, S. M., & Sorg, J. A.

citation count

  • 75

complete list of authors

  • Bouillaut, Laurent||McBride, Shonna M||Sorg, Joseph A

publication date

  • February 2011