Metabolism of bile salts in mice influences spore germination in Clostridium difficile. Academic Article uri icon


  • Clostridium difficile, a spore-forming bacterium, causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In order to produce toxins and cause disease, C. difficile spores must germinate and grow out as vegetative cells in the host. Although a few compounds capable of germinating C. difficile spores in vitro have been identified, the in vivo signal(s) to which the spores respond were not previously known. Examination of intestinal and cecal extracts from untreated and antibiotic-treated mice revealed that extracts from the antibiotic-treated mice can stimulate colony formation from spores to greater levels. Treatment of these extracts with cholestyramine, a bile salt binding resin, severely decreased the ability of the extracts to stimulate colony formation from spores. This result, along with the facts that the germination factor is small, heat-stable, and water-soluble, support the idea that bile salts stimulate germination of C. difficile spores in vivo. All extracts able to stimulate high level of colony formation from spores had a higher proportion of primary to secondary bile salts than extracts that could not. In addition, cecal flora from antibiotic-treated mice was less able to modify the germinant taurocholate relative to flora from untreated mice, indicating that the population of bile salt modifying bacteria differed between the two groups. Taken together, these data suggest that an in vivo-produced compound, likely bile salts, stimulates colony formation from C. difficile spores and that levels of this compound are influenced by the commensal gastrointestinal flora.

published proceedings

  • PLoS One

altmetric score

  • 9

author list (cited authors)

  • Giel, J. L., Sorg, J. A., Sonenshein, A. L., & Zhu, J.

citation count

  • 142

complete list of authors

  • Giel, Jennifer L||Sorg, Joseph A||Sonenshein, Abraham L||Zhu, Jun

editor list (cited editors)

  • Ratner, A. J.

publication date

  • January 2010