Kim, Hong-Hoe (2016-05). A Fine Motor Skill Classifying Framework to Support Children's Self-Regulation Skills and School Readiness. Doctoral Dissertation. Thesis uri icon

abstract

  • Children's self-regulation skills predict their school-readiness and social behaviors, and assessing these skills enables parents and teachers to target areas for improvement or prepare children to enter school ready to learn and achieve. Assessing these skills enables parents and teachers to target areas for improvement or prepare children to enter school ready to learn and achieve. To assess children's fine motor skills, current educators are assessing those skills by either determining their shape drawing correctness or measuring their drawing time durations through paper-based assessments. However, the methods involve human experts manually assessing children's fine motor skills, which are time consuming and prone to human error and bias. As there are many children that use sketch-based applications on mobile and tablet devices, computer-based fine motor skill assessment has high potential to solve the limitations of the paper-based assessments. Furthermore, sketch recognition technology is able to offer more detailed, accurate, and immediate drawing skill information than the paper-based assessments such as drawing time or curvature difference. While a number of educational sketch applications exist for teaching children how to sketch, they are lacking the ability to assess children's fine motor skills and have not proved the validity of the traditional methods onto tablet-environments. We introduce our fine motor skill classifying framework based on children's digital drawings on tablet-computers. The framework contains two fine motor skill classifiers and a sketch-based educational interface (EasySketch). The fine motor skill classifiers contain: (1) KimCHI: the classifier that determines children's fine motor skills based on their overall drawing skills and (2) KimCHI2: the classifier that determines children's fine motor skills based on their curvature- and corner-drawing skills. Our fine motor skill classifiers determine children's fine motor skills by generating 131 sketch features, which can analyze their drawing ability (e.g. DCR sketch feature can determine their curvature-drawing skills). We first implemented the KimCHI classifier, which can determine children's fine motor skills based on their overall drawing skills. From our evaluation with 10- fold cross-validation, we found that the classifier can determine children's fine motor skills with an f-measure of 0.904. After that, we implemented the KimCHI2 classifier, which can determine children's fine motor skills based on their curvature- and corner-drawing skills. From our evaluation with 10-fold cross-validation, we found that the classifier can determine children's curvature-drawing skills with an f-measure of 0.82 and corner-drawing skills with an f-measure of 0.78. The KimCHI2 classifier outperformed the KimCHI classifier during the fine motor skill evaluation. EasySketch is a sketch-based educational interface that (1) determines children's fine motor skills based on their drawing skills and (2) assists children how to draw basic shapes such as alphabet letters or numbers based on their learning progress. When we evaluated our interface with children, our interface determined children's fine motor skills more accurately than the conventional methodology by f-measures of 0.907 and 0.744, accordingly. Furthermore, children improved their drawing skills from our pedagogical feedback. Finally, we introduce our findings that sketch features (DCR and Polyline Test) can explain children's fine motor skill developmental stages. From the sketch feature distributions per each age group, we found that from age 5 years, they show notable fine motor skill development.
  • Children's self-regulation skills predict their school-readiness and social behaviors, and assessing these skills enables parents and teachers to target areas for improvement or prepare children to enter school ready to learn and achieve. Assessing these skills enables parents and teachers to target areas for improvement or prepare children to enter school ready to learn and achieve.
    To assess children's fine motor skills, current educators are assessing those skills by either determining their shape drawing correctness or measuring their drawing time durations through paper-based assessments. However, the methods involve human experts manually assessing children's fine motor skills, which are time consuming and prone to human error and bias. As there are many children that use sketch-based applications on mobile and tablet devices, computer-based fine motor skill assessment has high potential to solve the limitations of the paper-based assessments. Furthermore, sketch recognition technology is able to offer more detailed, accurate, and immediate drawing skill information than the paper-based assessments such as drawing time or curvature difference. While a number of educational sketch applications exist for teaching children how to sketch, they are lacking the ability to assess children's fine motor skills and have not proved the validity of the traditional methods onto tablet-environments.

    We introduce our fine motor skill classifying framework based on children's digital drawings on tablet-computers. The framework contains two fine motor skill classifiers and a sketch-based educational interface (EasySketch). The fine motor skill classifiers contain: (1) KimCHI: the classifier that determines children's fine motor skills based on their overall drawing skills and (2) KimCHI2: the classifier that determines children's fine motor skills based on their curvature- and corner-drawing skills. Our fine motor skill classifiers determine children's fine motor skills by generating 131 sketch features, which can analyze their drawing ability (e.g. DCR sketch feature can determine their curvature-drawing skills).

    We first implemented the KimCHI classifier, which can determine children's fine motor skills based on their overall drawing skills. From our evaluation with 10- fold cross-validation, we found that the classifier can determine children's fine motor skills with an f-measure of 0.904. After that, we implemented the KimCHI2 classifier, which can determine children's fine motor skills based on their curvature- and corner-drawing skills. From our evaluation with 10-fold cross-validation, we found that the classifier can determine children's curvature-drawing skills with an f-measure of 0.82 and corner-drawing skills with an f-measure of 0.78. The KimCHI2 classifier outperformed the KimCHI classifier during the fine motor skill evaluation.

    EasySketch is a sketch-based educational interface that (1) determines children's fine motor skills based on their drawing skills and (2) assists children how to draw basic shapes such as alphabet letters or numbers based on their learning progress. When we evaluated our interface with children, our interface determined children's fine motor skills more accurately than the conventional methodology by f-measures of 0.907 and 0.744, accordingly. Furthermore, children improved their drawing skills from our pedagogical feedback.

    Finally, we introduce our findings that sketch features (DCR and Polyline Test) can explain children's fine motor skill developmental stages. From the sketch feature distributions per each age group, we found that from age 5 years, they show notable fine motor skill development.

publication date

  • May 2016