Characterizing EnergyDelay Tradeoff in Hyper-Cellular Networks With Base Station Sleeping Control Academic Article uri icon


  • 1983-2012 IEEE. Base station (BS) sleeping operation is one of the effective ways to save energy consumption of cellular networks, but it may lead to longer delay to the customers. The fundamental question then arises: How much energy can be traded off by a tolerable delay? In this paper, we characterize the fundamental tradeoffs between total energy consumption and overall delay in a BS with sleep mode operations by queueing models. Here, the BS total energy consumption includes not only the transmitting power but also basic power (for baseband processing, power amplifier, etc.) and switch-over power of the BS working mode, and the overall delay includes not only transmission delay but also queueing delay. Specifically, the BS is modeled as an M/G/1 vacation queue with setup and close-down times, where the BS enters sleep mode if no customers arrive during the close-down (hysteretic) time after the queue becomes empty. When asleep, the BS stays in sleep mode until the queue builds up to N customers during the sleep period ( N-Policy). Several closed-form formulas are derived to demonstrate the tradeoffs between the energy consumption and the mean delay for different wake-up policies by changing the close-down time, setup time, and the parameter N. It is shown that the relationship between the energy consumption and the mean delay is linear in terms of mean close-down time, but non-linear in terms of N. The explicit relationship between total power consumption and average delay with varying service rate is also analyzed theoretically, indicating that sacrificing delay cannot always be traded off for energy saving. In other words, larger N may lead to lower energy consumption, but there exists an optimal N that minimizes the mean delay and energy consumption at the same time. We also investigate the maximum delay (delay bound) for certain percentage of service and find that the delay bound is nearly linear in mean delay in the cases tested. Therefore, similar tradeoffs exist between energy consumption and the delay bound. In summary, the closed-form energy-delay tradeoffs cast light on designing BS sleeping and wake-up control policies that aim to save energy while maintaining acceptable quality of service.

published proceedings

  • IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

author list (cited authors)

  • Niu, Z., Guo, X., Zhou, S., & Kumar, P. R.

citation count

  • 53

complete list of authors

  • Niu, Zhisheng||Guo, Xueying||Zhou, Sheng||Kumar, PR

publication date

  • April 2015