Fatty acid modulation of autoinducer (AI-2) influenced growth and macrophage invasion by Salmonella Typhimurium.
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Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a small molecule that is involved in bacterial cell-to-cell signaling whose precursor formation is mediated by luxS. A luxS mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium PJ002 (luxS) was grown in glucose-containing M-9 minimal medium supplemented with varying concentrations (1, 10, and 100) of long-chain fatty acids (linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid) to study the influence of fatty acids on growth rate and macrophage invasion. Additionally, in vitro synthesized AI-2 was added to this medium to identify the influence of AI-2 on S. Typhimurium PJ002 (luxS) growth rate and macrophage invasion. The growth rate constant (k) for each experimental treatment was determined based on OD values recorded during 12 h of incubation. There was a significant (p=0.01) increase in the growth rate of S. Typhimurium PJ002 (luxS) in the presence of AI-2 when compared to the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control. However, fatty acids either singly or in a mixture were unable to influence AI-2's effect on growth rate. The presence of AI-2 significantly (p=0.02) decreased the invasiveness of S. Typhimurium PJ002 (luxS) towards the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. However, the fatty acid mixture was able to reverse this reduction and restore invasiveness to background levels. These results suggest that, while AI-2 may enhance the growth rate and reduce macrophage invasion by the luxS mutant S. Typhimurium PJ002 (luxS), fatty acids may influence the virulence in S. Typhimurium (PJ002) by modulating AI-2 activity.
author list (cited authors)
Widmer, K. W., Jesudhasan, P., & Pillai, S. D.
complete list of authors
Widmer, Kenneth W||Jesudhasan, Palmy||Pillai, Suresh D