Microwave NDT for in situ monitoring of fresh/saline water fraction in natural gas flow Academic Article uri icon


  • © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This paper proposes a microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) method to detect and estimate the volume fraction of fresh or saline water in natural gas pipelines. The gas pipe is modelled as a waveguide that is filled with gas and different quantities of static liquid water placed at the bottom of the pipe. A transceiver antenna is inserted into the pipe and the return loss is measured over a broad spectrum. It is observed that the increase in the water fraction will cause a downward shift in the resonant frequency of S11. HFSS software was used to simulate the wave characteristics for different water volume fractions (WVFs) inside the pipe and the experimental data showed that a water fraction as low as 0.2% can be quantified. The presence of saline water as opposed to fresh water causes a decrease in |S11| especially for larger than 0.4% WVFs. A curve fitting formula was developed to estimate the quantity of water from |S11| for both fresh and saline water.

author list (cited authors)

  • Enshasy, H., Omar, A., Alnuweiri, H., & Cheng, M.

citation count

  • 3

publication date

  • May 2017