Surgical methods of contraception and sterilization
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Many techniques for surgically sterilizing dogs and cats have been described; each technique offers advantages and disadvantages to both the patient and surgeon. Techniques that have been described include traditional midline ovariohysterectomy, lateral flank ovariohysterectomy, castration, early age gonadectomy, ovariectomy, laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy and ovariectomy, and vasectomy. Regardless of the technique selected, strict adherence to sound surgical technique and asepsis is mandatory for good surgical outcome with minimal complications. This review will discuss surgical principles, complications, outcomes, as well as relevant current literature associated with each of these techniques of surgical sterilization.
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