A paradigm for examining second-order factor models employing structural equation modeling Academic Article uri icon


  • We present here a paradigm for assessing second-order measurement models. Our approach is hierarchical in nature. We discuss the need for higher-order models from a conceptual perspective and illustrate how some common challenges in empirical research can be resolved through the deployment of higher-order modeling. Essentially, we argue that many constructs can be meaningfully described by a higher-order structure and testing for the existence of such structures requires a careful examination of alternative models. There is a need for conceptual as well as empirical support. In order to demonstrate our paradigm, we use data that relate to airline service quality. Our sample includes two databases. Responses from 170 individuals are employed for exploratory purposes and responses from 437 individuals are used for subsequent data analyses. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

author list (cited authors)

  • Koufteros, X., Babbar, S., & Kaighobadi, M.

citation count

  • 136

publication date

  • August 2009