Trajectories of Life Satisfaction Over the First 10 Years After Traumatic Brain Injury
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OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of race, gender, functional ability, and an array of preinjury, injury-related, and sociodemographic variables on life satisfaction trajectories over 10 years following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 3157 individuals with TBI from the TBI Model Systems database was included in this study. DESIGN: Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were conducted to examine the trajectories of life satisfaction. MAIN MEASURES: The Functional Independence Measure, Glasgow Coma Scale, and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were utilized. RESULTS: Initial models suggested that life satisfaction trajectories increased over the 10-year period and Asian/Pacific Islander participants experienced an increase in life satisfaction over time. In a comprehensive model, time was no longer a significant predictor of increased life satisfaction. Black race, however, was associated with lower life satisfaction, and significant interactions revealed that black participants' life satisfaction trajectory decreased over time while white participants' trajectory increased over the same time period. Life satisfaction trajectories did not significantly differ by gender, and greater motor and cognitive functioning were associated with increasingly positive life satisfaction trajectories over the 10 years. CONCLUSION: Individuals with more functional impairments are at risk for decreases in life satisfaction over time. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms and factors that contribute to the lower levels of life satisfaction observed among black individuals post-TBI. This work is needed to determine strategic ways to promote optimal adjustment for these individuals.
author list (cited authors)
Williamson, M., Elliott, T. R., Bogner, J., Dreer, L. E., Arango-Lasprilla, J. C., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., ... Perrin, P. B.