Expression of mutant bovine growth hormone genes in mice perturbs age-related nutrient utilization patterns.
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Three lines of transgenic mice expressing mutant bovine growth hormone (bGH) genes and displaying small (G119K), near normal (M11) or large (M4) phenotypes and nontransgenic control (NTC) mice were used to determine GH-associated, age-specific changes in empty body composition. The single amino acid substitution in G119K mice reduced the quantities (P < 0.001) and early rates (P < 0.05) of deposition for water, protein and ash but resulted in similar quantities of fat as the NTC mice. The change in relative quantities of empty body components indicated the G119K analogue altered nutrient partitioning, basal metabolism and (or) nutrient availability to effect the differential observed in body composition. The two amino acid substitutions in the bGH gene expressed by the M11 mice caused only a small change in phenotype, but age-related changes in the accretion of protein, fat and ash indicated these mice were not mature by 68 d of age. The bGH analogue produced by the M4 mice resulted in a doubling (P < 0.001) of body weight in comparison with the NTC mice, a result of the increasing (P < 0.001) rate of weight gain. Empty body component gain of the M4 mice also indicated they had not yet matured by 68 d of age. The G119K and M4 mutant forms of bGH altered rates and composition of growth, possibly through redirection of tissue nutrient utilization, modification of nutrient metabolism, and(or) nutrient availability.