Biomass Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels Using the MixAlcoTMProcess Academic Article uri icon


  • The MixAlco process converts biomass to hydrocarbons (e.g., gasoline) using the following generic steps: pretreatment, fermentation, descumming, dewatering, thermal ketonization, distillation, hydrogenation, oligomerization and saturation. This study describes the production of bio-gasoline from chicken manure and shredded office paper, both desirable feedstocks that do not require pretreatment. Using a mixed culture of microorganisms derived from marine soil, the biomass was fermented to produce a dilute aqueous solution of carboxylate salts, which were subsequently descummed and dried. The dry salts were thermally converted to raw ketones, which were distilled to remove impurities. Using Raney nickel catalyst, the distilled ketones were hydrogenated to mixed secondary alcohols ranging from C3 to C12. Using zeolite HZSM-5 catalyst, these alcohols were oligomerized to hydrocarbons in a plug-flow reactor. Finally, these unsaturated hydrocarbons were hydrogenated to produce a mixture of hydrocarbons that can be blended into commercial gasoline. 2013, IFP Energies nouvelles.

published proceedings

  • Oil & Gas Science and Technology Revue dIFP Energies nouvelles

author list (cited authors)

  • Taco-Vasquez, S., & Holtzapple, M. T.

citation count

  • 3

complete list of authors

  • Taco-Vasquez, S||Holtzapple, MT

publication date

  • April 2013