Characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates from turkeys in commercial processing plants for resistance to antibiotics, disinfectants, and a growth promoter. Academic Article uri icon


  • Salmonella enterica isolates from turkeys in two commercial processing plants (1 and 2) were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics, disinfectants, and the organoarsenical growth promoter, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid (3-NHPAA, roxarsone), and it's metabolites, NaAsO(2) (As(III)) and Na(2)HAsO(4) 7H(2)O (As(V)). The 130 Salmonella serovars tested demonstrated a low incidence of resistance to the antibiotics gentamicin (GEN), kanamycin (KAN), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), streptomycin (STR), and tetracycline (TET). Isolates resistant to antibiotics were most often multidrug resistant. Serovars Hadar and Typhimurium were resistant to KAN, STR, and TET and GEN, SMX, and STR, respectively. All isolated Salmonella serovars were resistant to the disinfectant chlorhexidine with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs; 1-8g/mL), and they were susceptible to triclosan and benzalkonium chloride. The didecyldimethylammonium chloride component was the most active ammonium chloride tested. No cross-resistance was observed between antibiotics and disinfectants. The MICs for 3-NHPAA (4096g/mL) were consistent between processing Plant 1 and Plant 2, but MICs for the 3-NHPAA metabolites (As(III) and As(V)) were higher in Plant 1 than in Plant 2. In Plant 1, 76% of the isolates had MICs >256g/mL for As(III) and 92% of the isolates had MICs >1024g/mL for As(V). In Plant 2, all of the isolates had MICs 256g/mL for As(III) and 90% of the isolates had MICs 1024g/mL for As(V). Only 4 Salmonella serovars were isolated from Plant 1, but 10 serovars were isolated from Plant 2. S. enterica serovar Derby from Plant 1 was highly resistant to As(III) and As(V) with MICs >1024 and >8192g/mL, respectively, suggesting previous exposure to high arsenic metabolite concentrations. These levels may have been high enough to kill other Salmonella serovars, thus possibly explaining the lack of serovar diversity observed in Plant 1. The application of a growth promoter may affect the serovar diversity in treated birds.

published proceedings

  • Foodborne Pathog Dis

author list (cited authors)

  • Beier, R. C., Anderson, P. N., Hume, M. E., Poole, T. L., Duke, S. E., Crippen, T. L., ... Nisbet, D. J.

citation count

  • 34

complete list of authors

  • Beier, Ross C||Anderson, Phelue N||Hume, Michael E||Poole, Toni L||Duke, Sara E||Crippen, Tawni L||Sheffield, Cynthia L||Caldwell, David J||Byrd, James A||Anderson, Robin C||Nisbet, David J

publication date

  • January 2011