Three-Dimensional Microstructural Modeling Framework for Dense-Graded Asphalt Concrete Using a Coupled Viscoelastic, Viscoplastic, and Viscodamage Model
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This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) image-based microstructural computational modeling framework to predict the thermoviscoelastic, thermoviscoplastic, and thermoviscodamage response of asphalt concrete. X-ray computed tomography is used to scan dense-graded asphalt concrete (DGA) to obtain slices and planar images, from which the 3D microstructure is reconstructed. Image processing techniques are used to enhance the quality of images in terms of phase identification and separation of particles. This microstructure is divided into two phases: aggregate and matrix. The aggregate phase is modeled as an elastic material and the matrix phase is modeled as a thermoviscoelastic, thermoviscoplastic, and thermodamage material. Stress-strain response, damage propagation, and the distributions of the viscoelastic and viscoplastic strains are predicted by performing virtual uniaxial and repeated creep-recovery tests of the developed 3D model of asphalt concrete. The effects of loading rate, temperature, and loading type on the thermomechanical response of asphalt concrete are investigated. In addition, the microscopic and macroscopic responses of DGA are compared with those of stone matrix asphalt (SMA). The results demonstrate that SMA can sustain higher strain levels at the microscopic level and higher macroscopic ultimate strength. The damage in SMA is more localized than in DGA. The microstructure-based framework presented in this paper can be used to offer insight on the influence of the distribution and properties of microscopic constituents on the macroscopic behavior of asphalt concrete. 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.