Heterobilharzia americana infection and congestive heart failure in a llama (Lama glama). Academic Article uri icon


  • The schistosome Heterobilharzia americana infects several mammalian species in the southeastern United States, including horses, but infections have not been reported in camelids. This is a report of H. americana infection in a 6-year-old llama with extensive cardiac pathology and congestive heart failure. Parasite-induced granulomas were widely disseminated and included overwhelming involvement of the lungs and liver. Microscopic lesions in the heart included myofiber degeneration and necrosis, with extensive replacement fibrosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed the presence of H. americana in the lungs.

published proceedings

  • Vet Pathol

altmetric score

  • 0.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Corapi, W. V., Eden, K. B., Edwards, J. F., & Snowden, K. F.

citation count

  • 3

complete list of authors

  • Corapi, WV||Eden, KB||Edwards, JF||Snowden, KF

publication date

  • May 2015