Nano-Communication for Biomedical Applications: A Review on the State-of-the-Art From Physical Layers to Novel Networking Concepts
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2016 IEEE. Nano-communication-based devices have the potential to play a vital role in future healthcare technologies by improving the quality of human life. Its application in medical diagnostics and treatment has a great potential, because of its ability to access small and delicate body sites noninvasively, where conventional medical devices fall short. In this paper, the state of the art in this field is presented to provide a comprehensive understanding of current models, considering various communication paradigms, antenna design issues, radio channel models based on numerical and experimental analysis and network, and system models for such networks. Finally, open research areas are identified for the future directions within the field.