Individual and combined effects of fumonisin B1 present in Fusarium moniliforme culture material and T-2 toxin or deoxynivalenol in broiler chicks Academic Article uri icon

abstract

  • The individual and combined effects of feeding diets containing 300 mg fumonisin B1 (FB1), and 5 mg T-2 toxin (T-2)/kg of diet, or 15 mg/kg deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) from naturally contaminated wheat were evaluated in two studies in male broiler chicks from day of hatch to 19 or 21 d of age in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. When compared with controls, body weight gains were reduced 18 to 20% by FB1, 18% by T-2, 2% by DON, 32% by the FB1 and T-2 combination, and 19% by the FB1 and DON combination. The efficiency of feed utilization was adversely affected by FB1 with or without T-2 or DON. Mortality ranged from none for the controls to 15% for the FB1 and T-2 combination. Relative weights of the liver and kidney were significantly increased by FB1 with or without T-2 or DON. Serum concentrations of cholesterol were increased in chicks fed FB1 with or without T-2 or DON. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyltransferase were increased in chicks fed FB1 at 300 mg/kg alone and in combination with T-2 or DON, indicating possible tissue damage and leakage of the enzymes into the blood. Results indicate additive toxicity when chicks were fed diets containing 300 mg FB1 and 5 mg T-2/kg of diet and less than additive toxicity when chicks were fed 300 mg FB1 and 15 mg DON/kg of diet. Of importance to the poultry industry is the fact that toxic synergy was not observed for either of these toxin combinations and the likelihood of encountering FB1 at this concentration in finished feed is small. However, under field conditions with additional stress factors, the toxicity of these mycotoxins could be altered to adversely affect the health and performance of poultry.

author list (cited authors)

  • Kubena, L. F., Edrington, T. S., Harvey, R. B., Buckley, .., Phillips, T. D., Rottinghaus, G. E., & Casper, H. H.

citation count

  • 73

complete list of authors

  • Kubena, LF||Edrington, TS||Harvey, RB||Buckley, SA||Phillips, TD||Rottinghaus, GE||Casper, HH

publication date

  • September 1997