A survey of aflatoxin M1 in milk and sweets of Punjab, Pakistan Academic Article uri icon


  • Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) occurs in milk and dairy products, resulting from metabolism of ingested aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in contaminated feedstuffs. The toxic effects of AFM1 include carcinogenesis, reduced protein synthesis, and immunosuppressant effects. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products of Punjab, the major milk producing province in Pakistan. Two hundred thirty two milk samples from local shops, household farms, and large scale farms; and 138 sweets (Mithae) from local shops were collected from the 36 districts of Punjab province. These samples were analyzed for aflatoxin M1 by ELISA technique. The AFM1 incidence rates in milk and sweets were 76.3% and 97%, respectively. Average AFM1 concentration in milk was 0.252 g/L and in sweets was 0.48 g/kg. Results were compared with the European Union permissible levels of aflatoxin M1 in milk (0.05 g/L) and milk products (0.05 g/kg). Contamination level in 75 milk and 108 sweets sample was higher than these levels. No positive correlation was observed between the level of AFM1 in milk and the level of AFM1 in sweets samples, which was likely caused by the large variations in milking and sweets processing. The results indicated that the community is constantly exposed to these toxins. Regulatory mechanism should be implemented to control the toxins in milk and milk products. As feed is the main source of AFM1 in milk the level of aflatoxins in livestock feeds should also be kept to the minimum. 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

published proceedings

  • Food Control

author list (cited authors)

  • Sadia, A., Jabbar, M. A., Deng, Y., Hussain, E. A., Riffat, S., Naveed, S., & Arif, M.

citation count

  • 62

complete list of authors

  • Sadia, Asma||Jabbar, Makhdoom Abdul||Deng, Youjun||Hussain, Erum Akbar||Riffat, Sualeha||Naveed, Saima||Arif, Muhammad

publication date

  • January 1, 2012 11:11 AM