Specificity of antioxidant enzyme inhibition in skeletal muscle to reactive nitrogen species donors.
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Nitric oxide (*NO) and its by-products modulate many physiological functions of skeletal muscle including blood flow, metabolism, glucose uptake, and contractile function. However, growing evidence suggests that an overproduction of nitric oxide contributes to muscle wasting in a number of pathologies including chronic heart failure, sepsis, COPD, muscular dystrophy, and extreme disuse. Limited data point to the potential of inhibition various enzymes by reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including (.)NO and its downstream products such as peroxynitrite, primarily in purified systems. We hypothesized that exposure of skeletal muscle to RNS donors would reduce or downregulate activities of the crucial antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Diaphragm muscle fiber bundles were extracted from 4-month-old Fischer-344 rats and, in a series of experiments, exposed to either (a) 0 (control), 1, or 5 mM diethylamine NONOate (DEANO: *NO donor); (b) 0, 100, 500 microM, or 1 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP: *NO donor); (c) 0 or 2 mM S-nitroso-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP: *NO donor); or (d) 0 or 500 microM SIN-1 (peroxynitrite donor) for 60 min. DEANO resulted in a 50% reduction in CAT, GPX, and a dose-dependent inhibition of Cu, Zn-SOD. SNP resulted in significantly lower activities for total SOD, Mn-SOD isoform, Cu, Zn-SOD isoform, CAT, and GPX in a dose-dependent fashion. Two millimolar SNAP and 500 microM SIN-1 also resulted in a large and significant inhibition of total SOD and CAT. These data indicate that reactive nitrogen species impair antioxidant enzyme function in an RNS donor-specific and dose-dependent manner and are consistent with the hypothesis that excess RNS production contributes to skeletal muscle oxidative stress and muscle dysfunction.