Landscape analysis and genetics can allow a better understanding of grasshoppers for which ecology is not very well known. We analysed landscape changes between 1990 and 2006 at two areas from southern France where three grasshopper species ( Calliptamus italicus (L., 1758), Calliptamus wattenwylianus Pantel, 1896, and Calliptamus barbarus (Costa, 1836)) occur. We then applied microsatellite markers to the study of 1200 georeferenced samples collected over both areas. We used a recent Bayesian clustering method with correlated allele frequencies to detect weak population genetic structure. We found evidence of breaks in gene flow only in C.wattenwylianus, thought to be sedentary relative to its congenerics. By using different allele frequency models and prior information to different levels of genetic differentiation for our six real data sets, our study also informs on the ability of the newly available Bayesian clustering methods model to detect weak genetic structure in natural field populations.