Mathematical models for current, voltage, and coupling capacitor voltage transformers Academic Article uri icon


  • This paper reviews a number of mathematical models used to represent the nonlinear behavior of the magnetic core of instrument transformers. Models of instrument transformers using these core representations are presented. The transient response of the instrument transformer is compared to actual test results recorded in the laboratory. The paper provides practical guidelines as to which of the physical elements of instrument transformers are important to model during transient studies, and which elements could be ignored without sacrificing the accuracy of the simulation results. The electromagnetic transients program (EMTP) data files used to generate the models are also provided in the appendix to help new EMTP users model instrument transformers for evaluation of high-speed protective relaying systems.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Tziouvaras, D. A., McLaren, P., Alexander, G., Dawson, D., Esztergalyos, J., Fromen, C., ... Zocholl, S.

citation count

  • 162

complete list of authors

  • Tziouvaras, DA||McLaren, P||Alexander, G||Dawson, D||Esztergalyos, J||Fromen, C||Glinkowski, M||Hasenwinkle, I||Kezunovic, M||Kojovic, L||Kotheimer, B||Kuffel, R||Nordstrom, J||Zocholl, S

publication date

  • January 2000