Sperm sex-sorting and preservation for managing the sex ratio and genetic diversity of the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). Academic Article uri icon


  • White rhinoceros ejaculates (n=9) collected by electroejaculation from four males were shipped (10C, 12h) to develop procedures for the production of chilled and frozen-thawed sex-sorted spermatozoa of adequate quality for artificial insemination (AI). Of all electroejaculate fractions, 39.7% (31/78) exhibited high quality post-collection (70% total motility and membrane integrity) and of those, 54.8% (17/31) presented reduced in vitro quality after transport and were retrospectively determined to exhibit urine-contamination (21.0g creatinine/ml). Of fractions analyzed for creatinine concentration, 69% (44/64) were classified as urine-contaminated. For high quality non-contaminated fractions, in vitro parameters (motility, velocity, membrane, acrosome and DNA integrity) of chilled non-sorted and sorted spermatozoa were well-maintained at 5C up to 54h post-collection, whereby >70% of post-transport (non-sorted) or post-sort (sorted) values were retained. By 54h post-collection, some motility parameters were higher (P<0.05) for non-sorted spermatozoa (total motility, rapid velocity, average path velocity) whereas all remaining motion parameters as well as membrane, acrosome and DNA integrity were similar between sperm types. In comparison with a straw method, directional freezing resulted in enhanced (P<0.05) motility and velocity of non-sorted and sorted spermatozoa, with comparable overall post-thaw quality between sperm types. High purity enrichment of X-bearing (896%) or Y-bearing (863%) spermatozoa was achieved using moderate sorting rates (2540498X-spermatozoa/s; 1800557Y-spermatozoa/s). Collective in vitro characteristics of sorted-chilled or sorted-frozen-thawed spermatozoa derived from high quality electroejaculates indicate acceptable fertility potential for use in AI.

published proceedings

  • Anim Reprod Sci

altmetric score

  • 13.6

author list (cited authors)

  • O'Brien, J. K., Roth, T. L., Stoops, M. A., Ball, R. L., Steinman, K. J., Montano, G. A., Love, C. C., & Robeck, T. R.

citation count

  • 8

complete list of authors

  • O'Brien, JK||Roth, TL||Stoops, MA||Ball, RL||Steinman, KJ||Montano, GA||Love, CC||Robeck, TR

publication date

  • January 2015