P-type ZnO thin films achieved by N+ ion implantation through dynamic annealing process
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ZnO thin films were grown on sapphire (0001) substrates by pulsed-laser deposition at 700°C. 70 keV N ion implantation was performed under various temperatures and fluences in the range of 300 - 460°C and 3.0 × 10 14 - 1.2 × 10 15 cm - 2, respectively. Hall measurements indicate that the ZnO films implanted at 460°C are p-type for all fluences used herein. Hole-carrier concentrations lie in the range of 2.4 × 10 16 - 5.2 × 10 17 cm - 3, hole mobilities in the range of 0.7 - 3.7 cm 2 V - 1 s - 1, and resistivities between 18 - 71 Ω cm. Transmission-electron microscopy reveals major microstructural differences between the n-type and p-type films. Ion implantation at elevated temperatures is shown to be an effective method to introduce increased concentrations of p-type N dopants while reducing the amount of stable post-implantation disorder. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
author list (cited authors)
Myers, M. A., Myers, M. T., General, M. J., Lee, J. H., Shao, L., & Wang, H.