Noninvasive identification of interindividual variation in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes: implications for cancer epidemiology and biomarker studies. Academic Article uri icon


  • In this study, DNA extracted from frozen urine was used in the analysis of polymorphisms in genes coding for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). These included single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), that is, substitutions of tyrosine by histidine in codon 113 (Y113H) and histidine by arginine in codon 139 (H139R), and deletion polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 and T1 genes. The concentration of DNA extracted from urine of a Ghanaian population (n = 91) exposed to aflatoxins in their diet ranged from 82.5 to 573 ng/ml urine. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) procedures were used for the characterization of mEH polymorphisms, whereas a multiplex PCR method was utilized to identify GST deletion polymorphisms. In total, 91% and 94% of 91 samples were genotyped for mEH exon 3 and exon 4 polymorphisms, respectively. In the multiplex analysis of GST polymorphisms, 94% and 91% of 91 individuals were genotyped for GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms, respectively. The polymorphisms in the mEH exon 4, GSTM1 and GSTT1, were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) except for mEH exon 3. Representative genotypes identified by PCR-RFLP were cloned and sequenced, then confirmed by comparison with reference sequences of human DNA published in the GenBank BLAST database. These results demonstrate that XMEs can be genotyped from urine with reliable accuracy and may be useful in cancer and molecular epidemiology studies.

published proceedings

  • J Toxicol Environ Health A

author list (cited authors)

  • Dash, B., Afriyie-Gyawu, E., Huebner, H. J., Porter, W., Wang, J. S., Jolly, P. E., & Phillips, T. D.

citation count

  • 3

complete list of authors

  • Dash, B||Afriyie-Gyawu, E||Huebner, HJ||Porter, W||Wang, JS||Jolly, PE||Phillips, TD

publication date

  • July 2006