Safety of fresh-squeezed juices Chapter uri icon


  • 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Outbreaks of foodborne illness resulting from consumption of contaminated fresh juices continue to occur worldwide. Between 1974 and 2014, fresh juices were involved in at least 48 foodborne illness outbreaks involving bacteria (. Salmonella, Shigella flexneri, Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli including groups O157 and O111 STEC, and enterotoxigenic E. coli), viruses (norovirus genotype II, hepatitis A virus), or protozoa (. Cryptosporidium and Trypanosoma cruzi) as etiologic agents. Most of these outbreaks were linked to fresh-squeezed orange or apple juice, while outbreaks caused by T. cruzi were linked to fresh juice made from various exotic fruits. The sources of pathogens causing outbreaks in fresh-squeezed juice include animal feces contaminating the raw fruits or vegetables used for juice making, contaminated water used in the process, unsanitary equipment and utensils used in juice extraction and serving, and food handlers. These pathogens may be internalized into the fruits used to obtain juice, and survive despite the natural acidity of some fruit juices. Therefore, more effective strategies for reducing pathogens potentially present in fresh-squeezed juices should be applied. These strategies include the use of nondamaged raw materials, implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices during processing, and the implementation of an HACCP plan when possible.

author list (cited authors)

  • Edid Martinez-Gonzales, N., & Castillo, A.

citation count

  • 5

complete list of authors

  • Edid Martinez-Gonzales, Nanci||Castillo, Alejandro

Book Title


publication date

  • May 2016