Since the first human procedure in the late 1980s, vascular stent implantation has been accepted as a standard form of treatment of atherosclerosis. Despite their tremendous success, these medical devices are not without their problems, as excessive neointimal hyperplasia can result in the formation of a new blockage (restenosis). Clinical data suggest that stent design is a key factor in the development of restenosis. Additionally, computational studies indicate that the biomechanical environment is strongly dependent on the geometrical configuration of the stent, and, therefore, possibly involved in the development of restenosis. We hypothesize that stents that induce higher stresses on the artery wall lead to a more aggressive pathobiologic response, as determined by the amount of neointimal hyperplasia. The aim of this investigation was to examine the role of solid biomechanics in the development of restenosis. A combination of computational modeling techniques and in vivo analysis were employed to investigate the pathobiologic response to two stent designs that impose greater or lesser levels of stress on the artery wall. Stent designs were implanted in a porcine model (pigs) for approximately 28 days and novel integrative pathology techniques (quantitative micro-computed tomography, histomorphometry) were utilized to quantify the pathobiologic response. Concomitantly, computational methods were used to quantify the mechanical loads that the two stents place on the artery. Results reveal a strong correlation between the computed stress values induced on the artery wall and the pathobiologic response; the stent that subjected the artery to the higher stresses had significantly more neointimal thickening at stent struts (high-stress stent: 0.1970.020mm vs low-stress stent: 0.0710.016mm). Therefore, we conclude that the pathobiologic differences are a direct result of the solid biomechanical environment, confirming the hypothesis that stents that impose higher wall stresses will provoke a more aggressive pathobiological response.