Interventions for Executive Function Deficits in Children and Adolescents
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For children with neurodevelopmental or acquired disorders, deficits in executive function (EF) processes (i.e., attention, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem solving), are often evident. Moreover, EF deficits are associated with academic difficulties, behavioral and social difficulties, and long-term psychological maladjustment rendering prevention and intervention of EF deficits an important consideration. Many methods exist to address EF processes; this review will focus on pharmacological, cognitive/metacognitive, computerized, and neurofeedback approaches. Across research reviewed, results tend to vary depending on age, disorder, comorbid conditions, and outcome measures. Notably, there is limited research to suggest long-term maintenance of changes in symptom presentation, improved developmental trajectory, normalization of EF processes, or alteration to the associated neural connections. Implications for practice and future research for evidence-based interventions to address EF are discussed.
author list (cited authors)
Riccio, C. A., & Gomes, H.