A successful method of obtaining percutaneous liver biopsy samples of sufficient quantity for trace mineral analysis in adult swine without the aid of ultrasound Academic Article uri icon


  • Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine if liver biopsy samples could be obtained percutaneously from large adult swine safely and in sufficient quantity to evaluate trace mineral status, and to determine if liver samples could be obtained without the aid of ultrasound. Materials and methods: Twelve healthy pigs with an average weight of 209 kg were randomly divided into two equal groups. The principal group of pigs were anesthetized and placed in left lateral recumbency. Percutaneous liver biopsies were performed, according to the expected anatomical location of the liver, for trace mineral analysis and histopathology. All principal pigs were necropsied 48 hours after the procedure and evaluated for significant lesions. Blood samples were obtained from all pigs, before anesthesia and 48 hours after the procedure, for hematology and serum chemical analysis. Results: Liver tissue was successfully obtained from all six principal pigs. An average of 440 mg of liver was obtained for trace mineral analysis. Hematology, serum chemical analysis, and necropsy results indicated no clinically significant complications as a result of the biopsy technique. Discussion: It appears that obtaining percutaneous liver biopsies of sufficient quantity for trace mineral analysis can be performed safely in adult pigs without the aid of ultrasound. This procedure may circumvent the need to obtain liver tissue via necropsy or laparotomy. Implications: Use of this percutaneous biopsy technique provides sufficient tissue for researchers to evaluate the trace mineral reservoir status of adult swine without requiring necropsy or laparotomy.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Washburn, K. E., Powell, J. G., Maxwell, C. V., Kegley, E. B., Johnson, Z., & Fakler, T. M

complete list of authors

  • Washburn, KE||Powell, JG||Maxwell, CV||Kegley, EB||Johnson, Z||Fakler, TM

publication date

  • May 2005